The Reasons of Kidney Failure

The primary function of the kidneys is to remove the useless material from the body. Both the kidneys process about 200 liters of blood every day and thereby produces about 2 liter of urine. Kidneys also produce several hormones which are vital for the body.
The kidneys have a million nefrons which help in the formation of urine.

Gross pathology of polycystic kidneys
by Dr. Edwin P. Ewing, Jr.
Wikimedia Commons
About 17% or the population in India is having one or another form of the Kidney problem and out of these about 6% is in the third stage of disease.

The useless materials and toxins increase in the blood when the kidneys fail to function normally and it causes several diseases. Several complications will arise like high blood pressure, anemia, weak bones, deficiency of nutrients in body and the damaged nerves.

Chronic Kidney Disease or CKD
It is called Established Renal Failure or Advanced Kidney Disease. Here the working or the capabilities of the kidneys decrease slowly and as a result the kidneys fail to perform. The people suffering from CKD reach the hospital at a time when the functioning of the kidneys gets reduced to half. The disease could be controlled by medicines, if the disease is detected in the first or the second stage.

Glomerulonephritis
It is group of diseases in which the swelling occurs in the filtering units of the kidneys and they get damaged. This disorder is the third largest type of kidney disease.

Polycystic Kidney Disease
In this genetic and hereditary disease big cysts get formed in the kidneys. As a result the tissues of the kidneys surrounding these cysts get damaged.

Kidney Infection
The repeatedly occurring infection in the kidneys is called pyelonephritis. This infection could be due to the presence of the kidney stones in which the flow of urine out of the kidneys gets interrupted and the urine flows back to the kidneys. This development increases the dangers of kidney infection.

Kidney Failure
The kidney disease becomes serious with the passage of time and leads to kidney failure. The kidney failure occurs when the kidneys perform less than 5% out of its total potential.

Symptoms
The general symptoms of the kidney diseases could be as follows.
Severe tiredness and loss of energy, loss of concentration, reduced appetite, sleeplessness, stretched muscles and cramps, swelling in ankles, dry itching skin, repeated urination at night, chest pain, panting, uncontrollable high blood pressure etc.

Reasons
The kidney disease could occur in any age. However this problem is more prevalent in some people than others. The risks of kidney problem increases in family history, old age, chronic kidney infections, excessive use of analgesics or pain killers, stones or tumor in kidneys, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, smoking, obesity, high cholesterol levels, age above 65 years etc.

For the Patients of Diabetes
The risks of kidney problems increase with diabetes. According to statistics the diabetes is the chief cause of kidney failure. Therefore the patients of diabetes should have the knowledge of early symptoms. The chances of kidney failure increase if the close family member had earlier faced such problem.

Diagnosis
Consult the physician, if any medical condition puts you under the risk of kidney disease. The physician will check the blood pressure, the working of the kidneys and conduct the urine and blood tests. In addition to these the imaging test like ultrasound, biopsy, Glomerular Filtration Rate or GRF are the best tests to measure the working of the kidneys and know about the stage of the disease.

Safety Measures  
1. Keep physically fit and remain active.
2. Take healthy balanced and nutritious diet.
3. Reduce the intake of salt.
4. Control the body weight.
5. Give up smoking.
6. Exercise daily and go for regular walk.

The Statistics of Kidney patients in India
1. One out of every 10 persons in India is suffering from any of the types of kidney diseases.
2. One out of seven and one out of five persons in India is suffering from diabetes and hypertension respectively.
3. More than 50% of kidney diseases are caused by diabetes and hypertension.
4. Half a million of Indians are having the problem of complete kidney failure.

5. About one tenth of a million of new patients are joining the kidney failure group every year.